Australia became a nation on 1 January 1901 when six British colonies—New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania—united to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

The Northern Territory separated from South Australia and became a part of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1911.

The first federal elections for the new Parliament, which consisted of 36 senators and 75 members of the House of Representatives, were held on 29 and 30 March 1901.

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The Australian Capital Territory was founded on 1 January 1911.

The Victorian Parliament House remained the temporary home of federal Parliament until 1927, while a new national capital and Parliament House was built in Canberra.

Before Australia was a nation, it was a collection of British colonies. Each colony was under the rule of a governor or lieutenant governor, who acted on behalf of the British Parliament.

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